Special Centers

Zion Women셲 Hospital, Serving with Love

The most common symptom of vaginitis is leucorrhea.
The patient must visit an OB/GYN if there is an excessive amount of vaginal discharge that wets her underwear or if the vaginal discharge has a deep color, or is sticky, runny, and gives off a foul odor. Vaginitis also causes pain during sexual intercourse, soreness while urinating, a burning sensation, or itching at the vaginal opening.

01. Cervicitis & Leucorrhea
The cervix consists of two types of epithelial cell. The exocervix is composed of squamous cells, which are the same type of cell as the epidermal cells of the uterus, and the endocervix is composed of column-shape cells. Endocervix inflammation is caused by the same bacterium as vaginitis, the treatment is also similar. The case for endocervix inflammation is slightly different. The leucorrhea is sticky and runs like pus, while the color is generally yellow or green. Although neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia have been revealed to be the bacteria that causes endocervix inflammation 50% of the time, the bacteria that causes the remaining 50% has yet to be discovered.

02. Inflammatory Vaginitis
Inflammatory vaginitis involves the inflammatory epithelial cells coming off, development of a pus-like leucorrhea, pain and a burning sensation of the vagina and vulva during sexual intercourse, as well as increased leucorrhea.

03. Candidiasis
Candidiasis is the most common form of vaginitis and it involves a cheese-like leucorrhea. It is accompanied with white and thick leucorrhea and has severe itching. The main cause is candida, which is a type of fungi, this is more likely to grow on a pregnant women and diabetes patients, whose immune systems have been weakened.

04. Trichomonal Vaginitis
Trichomonal vaginitis, which is caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is an STD that is transmitted through sexual intercourse and can spread very rapidly. Infertility, pelvic inflammation, and premature birth are aftereffects of the condition, the symptom of watery leucorrhea may indicate Trichomonal vaginitis. The Trichomonas vaginalis is flagellated and thus moves easily, sometimes moving along the urethra and into the bladder, causing cystitis, and sometimes going up the endometrium and causing pelvic inflammation and pain in the lower abdomen.

05. Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis occurs when normal bacteria loses control within the vagina. Anaerobic bacteria flourishes in an environment without oxygen. Once the oxygen which takes up less than 1 % of all bacteria disappears, Anaerobic bacteria increases 100 times and is called 쐖aginosis due to its symptoms being much weaker than those with inflammation.
The symptoms for bacterial vaginosis include leucorrhea that often smells like fish. As an aftereffect, there may be infertility and a miscarriage.

The best way to prevent vaginitis is to constantly pay attention to the causes and to maintain cleanliness.
Since excessive cleansing may remove even normal bacteria, it is however ideal to cleanse once a week and to cleanse straight away on special occasions.

STDs are transmitted through sexual intercourse, contact with the genitals or through the mouth or anus, STDs can also be transmitted through underwear, carpet and towels etc. in the case of pediculosis pubis.
Common STDs include gonorrhea, herpes and chlamydia, along with condyloma, various types of vaginitis and pediculosis pubis.

Blisters and warts spread to the anus.
Herpes simplex causes blisters and ulcers to form on the perineum, condyloma causes warts shaped like chicken combs, syphilis causes ulcer symptoms, and gonorrhea and urethritis causes a pus to secrete from the end of the urethra for men and no immediate symptoms for women. The aforementioned symptoms gradually spread from around the genitals to around the anus.

White layers and ulcers appear.
The symptoms appear due to syphilis, infection of HIV/AIDS, and gonorrhea. A characteristic leucorrhea appears with candida vaginitis and trichomonas vaginalis.

Rash, hair loss
The symptoms appear as a result of syphilis.

Light fever, aches all over the body
The symptoms may be due to syphilis, gonorrhea or other virus infections.

01. Syphilis
Syphilis is curable through penicillin injections. The first stage of syphilis shows the symptoms of an ulcer forming where the Treponema pallidum has penetrated after 10~90 days of penetration and no pain. In the second stage, in which the Treponema pallidum spreads to the entire body through the blood, skin rashes disappear and since the incubation period of the third phase may last from several months to several years, many do not experience any symptoms for a long time, which may eventually lead to partial paralysis or death.

02. Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is one of the most common STDS, and since the Neisseria gonorrhea is bacteria that is transmitted through contact with the mucous membrane and dies in a dry environment, it cannot be transmitted through towels or doorhandles, etc. Men experience a greenish yellow pus coming out and a stinging sensation while urinating when the incubation period of 2~10 days after sexual intercourse has passed. Women experience a stinging sensation when urinating and have a pus-like leucorrhea.
Dysuria, urinary frequency, severe pus-like secretion, vulvovaginitis, bartholinitis or salpingitis may occur 2~5 days within sexual intercourse.

03. Herpes
Herpes refers to the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) ,the symptoms for the first infection are most severe.
It is transmitted through the skin and contact of the mucous membrane, follows the peripheral sensory nerves to take place in the ganglia near the spine, and secures a place to cause relapse after the first phase of infection. The incubation period after the first phase of infection is about 4~7 days and symptoms of the whole body such as inertia and migraines appear, followed by blisters on the infected skin and mucous membrane that grow rapidly with increased pain.

04. Condyloma
Condyloma refers to warts shaped like chicken combs that spread near the genitals and anus, these are quite treatable despite the cause being from a virus.

05. Pediculosis Pubis (Crabs, Public Lice)
Pediculosis pubis is a type of lice that mainly lives off the pubic hair and is transmitted to sexual contact, clothes and bedclothes. The main symptom is severe itching.

06. HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is more fearful than cancer, which is known as a divine punishment, and requires caution since it can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood infusion, razors, and even through carelessness from medical personnel. The symptoms of the disease, “which appear after 6 months and up to 5~8 years of an incubation period after being infected by a virus named HTLV III”, are as follows.

Rapid weight loss
Sweating and a fever while sleeping at night
Loss of appetite and fatigue
Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
Abnormal red or white spots around the mouth
Symptoms of diarrhea without a known cause


While normal menstruation has a cycle of 21~35 days with an average 30ml of bleeding that continues for about 7 days, abnormal uterine bleeding must be examined by an OB/GYN.
When menstruation does not end clearly and is extended, or if there is bleeding between cycles, or there is irregular bleeding, a uterine cancer test, an ultrasound or an endometrial biopsy is conducted to determine if there is any disease such as cancer or myoma uteri.

01. Pregnancy
Bleeding can occur in the early stages of a normal pregnancy, as well as an abnormal pregnancy.

02. Medication
Incorrect use of birth control pills or the intake of ginseng or Korean medicine can cause abnormal uterine bleeding due to its effect on estrogen activity. Hormone therapy for menopause may also cause intermittent bleeding.

03. Uterine Cervical Cancer, Myoma Uteri
If the bleeding is due to a lesion, there is a possibility of endometrial cancer or myoma uteri.

04. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding occurs due to an irregular hormone secretion caused by nothing in particular, aside from stress and an irregular lifestyle.

Common sense on menstruation should be enough to determine whether uterine bleeding, “which may be an indication of pregnancy or the early stages cancer”, is abnormal. Bleeding in conditions such as myoma uteri can only be stopped through surgery.
Visits to the OB/GYN and the appropriate treatment is essential when finding the cause of the abnormal bleeding and learning the appropriate measures to be taken.

01. Condoms
A condom is a device made of thin rubber that is put over the male genitals to stop spermatozoa from entering the interior of the vagina. When putting one on, the protruding part at the end needs to be twisted to let out the air in order to prevent it from tearing and leading to an unsuccessful contraception.
Femidoms, which are female condoms, cover the interior of the vagina to block sperm.

02. Intrauterine Device (IUD)
This device is a uniquely shaped device that is inserted into the uterus at the hospital for the purpose of birth control.

03. Calendar-based Contraception
The most common method is the Knaus-Ogino Method, which requires a regular menstrual cycle. According to the Knaus-Ogino Method, subtracting 14 days from the first day of the next period will actually be the day of ovulation. However, the cycle may change and the contraception period may need to be extended since the spermatozoa can survive up to 3~4 days in the fallopian tube.

04. Tubal Ligation
The fallopian tubeis the channel in which the sperm and the egg meet and the fertilized egg moves over to the uterus. This procedure is to tie to block the egg and the spermatozoon from meeting. Hospital admission is unnecessary since the surgery uses a laparoscope.

05. Vasectomy
A vasectomy, involves tying the male vas deferens to prevent the discharge of sperm, this is a short procedure that does not require hospital admission.

06. Birth Control Pills
Birth control pills, which are oral contraceptives, are composites of estrogen that function to suppress ovulation. When contraception is needed for a certain cycle, the first pill is taken within 5 days from the start of that menstrual cycle, after which one pill is taken each day. If a pill for one day was forgotten, then two pills need to be taken within 12 hours. If pills for 2 days were forgotten, there is a high possibility that the contraception pills will not work and menstruation will start after all of the pills are taken.

07. Mirena (Intrauterine Device with Progestogen)
Mirena, which is a device inserted into the uterus, supplements the disadvantages of the intrauterine device and combines the advantages of a hormonal contraception. This device releases a small fixed amount of hormones, it has a contraceptive effect for 5 years with the contraception success rate at 99%, it also has the effect of reducing menstrual volume and cramps.

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